Visit Website Did you know? Legend says Martin Luther was inspired to launch the Protestant Reformation while seated comfortably on the chamber pot.
During Ostrom's junior year, she was encouraged to join the debate team. Learning debate tactics had an important impact on her ways of thinking.
It allowed her to realize there are two sides to public policy and it is imperative to have quality arguments for both sides. She began a job as an Export Clerk after taking a correspondence course for shorthand, which she later found to be helpful when taking notes in face-to-face interviews on research projects.
After a year, she obtained a position as Assistant Personnel Manager in a business firm that had never before hired a woman in anything but a secretarial position. This job inspired her to think about attending graduate-level courses and eventually applying for a research assistantship and admission to a Ph.
Specifically, Ostrom was assigned to look at the West Basin.
She found it is very difficult to manage a common-pool resource when it is used between individuals. The first course she taught was American Government at 7: As part of her PhD at the University of California, Los Angeles, she studied the water wars and pumping races going on in the s in her own dry backyard.
In her career, she looked at forests in Nepal, irrigation systems in Spain, mountain villages in Switzerland and Japan, fisheries in Maine and Indonesia.
Elinor Ostrom was a dedicated scholar until the very end of her life. Indeed, on the day before she died, she sent e-mail messages to at least two different sets of coauthors about papers that she was writing with them. In the end, she decided she could not come in person, but was contributing sharp, enthusiastically charged, inputs, in the way only she could.
Elinor Ostrom disproved this idea by conducting field studies on how people in small, local communities manage shared natural resources, such as pastures, fishing waters, and forests.
She showed that when natural resources are jointly used by their users, in time, rules are established for how these are to be cared for and used in a way that is both economically and ecologically sustainable.
It had to be discussed face to face, and based on trust. Ostrom, besides poring over satellite data and quizzing lobstermen herself, enjoyed employing game theory to try to predict the behaviour of people faced with limited resources.
In her Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University—set up with her husband Vincent, a political scientist, in —her students were given shares in a national commons. When they simply discussed what they should do before they did it, their rate of return from their "investments" more than doubled.
Her later, and more famous, work focused on how humans interact with ecosystems to maintain long-term sustainable resource yields.
Common pool resources include many forests, fisheries, oil fields, grazing lands, and irrigation systems.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Biographical Dictionary Pope Leo X () Consistory of July 1, (V) (9) 1.
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95 THESES by Martin Luther Champions of Truth Ministry yunusemremert.com 2 THE 95 THESES for they are, as I have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the divine remission.
It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and Luther - The 95 Theses Martin Luther.
Elinor Claire "Lin" Ostrom (August 7, – June 12, ) was an American political economist whose work was associated with the New Institutional Economics and the resurgence of political economy. In , she shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Oliver E.
Williamson for her "analysis of economic governance, especially the commons".