The clinical features of influenza

Bronchitis, pneumonia; in severe cases life-threatening Sinus congestion Complications of Human Influenza The most frequent complication of influenza is pneumonia, with secondary bacterial pneumonia being the most common form, and primary influenza pneumonia the most severe. In addition, mixed viral and bacterial pneumonia frequently occurs during outbreaks. Influenza may exacerbate heart or lung diseases or other chronic conditions.

The clinical features of influenza

McBryde attempted to transmit influenza from pig to pig by taking mucus from the respiratory tract of sick pigs and instilling it into the noses of healthy pigs. However, this effort failed to transmit the disease because they inoculated only filtered material. Most types of bacterial filters used during that time were unable to allow the flow of viral particles through them.

During the same year, Robert Shope, working at the Rockefeller Institute for Comparative Pathology in Princeton, New Jersey, repeated the same experiments inoculating unfiltered material, instead.

Influenza - Wikipedia

Shope was not only able to reproduce the disease, but more importantly, he went on to demonstrate that pigs can also become ill when filtered fluid was used for inoculation. The disease produced by the filtrate was mild and could be transferred repeatedly in pigs. This was the first reliable experimental evidence that influenza was caused by a virus, and it also provided the basis for further research into the human form of the disease.

Viruses identical or closely related to the human form of the infection can be isolated from ducks, turkeys, swine, horses, and many other species of warm-blooded vertebrates, as well. It is hypothesized that humans probably acquired influenza when domestication of animals first began.

The development of agriculture and the establishment of permanent settlements provided sufficient numbers of potential hosts to create an epidemic.

The human disease is thought to have arisen about years ago. A human influenza virus was not isolated until Wilson Smith, Christopher Andrews, and Patrick Laidrow first identified the virus that causes human influenza only because they found a suitable host for propagation.

The clinical features of influenza

Laidrow used ferrets in his studies on canine distemper virus, and was able to propagate the flu virus in that same host, as well. Influenza virus was later shown to also infect adult mice and chicken embryos.

During the summer ofinfluenza was reported in Asia Minor and Northern Africa.


Italian accounts suggest that it spread from Malta to Sicily in July and subsequently diffused north through the Italian peninsula by August. For most doctors, especially in the first six or seven decades of the century, influenza seemed to be spread or "created" by atmospheric factors.

Such theories were complex. To that extent, most eighteenth and early nineteenth-century articles on influenza are much more likely to contain elaborate meteorological tables than geographical reconstructions or statistics on morbidity or mortality.

Influenza pandemics occurred at least three times in the eighteenth century: In addition there were two major epidemics that could possibly be considered pandemics, in and Of these, two warrent further discussion: The pandemic was the first recorded pandemic, most likely fostered by the age of discovery.

Flu apparently did not break out in North America until Octoberwhen the disease was widespread along the New England coast from Boston to southern Maine. Although the origins and termination of the outbreak are unclear, it obviously was a pandemic, the first of a series that western European observers perceived as coming from Russia.

An origin in Russia seems plausible, but there is no documentation of this.Annex 4 Appendix 2 Reference laboratories Appendix 3 Model certificate for the release of influenza vaccine (human, live attenuated) for intranasal administration Recommendations published by WHO are intended to be scientific.

For most healthy people who acquire cytomegalovirus (CMV) after birth, there are few symptoms and no long-term health consequences.

Some people who acquire CMV infection may experience a mononucleosis-like condition with prolonged fever and hepatitis. Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms can be mild to severe.

Influenza Book | Clinical Presentation

The most common symptoms include: high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, sneezing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. Influenza is a highly infectious viral illness.

The name “influenza” originated in 15th century Italy, from an epidemic attributed to “influence of the stars.”. Physician assistants and nurse practitioners use Clinical Advisor for updated medical guidance to diagnose and treat common medical conditions in daily practice. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.

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